Monday, December 29, 2008

Yay -2009

Kariyerde ani değişiklikler

R. HAKAN KIRKOĞLU hkirkoglu@e-kolay.net
güncellenme zamanı 29.12.2008


astroloji burç yay
Satürn Yay’lara kariyer alanında daha dengeli bir ilerleme getirecek. 29 Ekim’den sonra üzerinizdeki iş yükünün hafiflediğini göreceksiniz

Uzun yıllardır burcunuzda olan Plüton, bu yıl Oğlak burcuna ilerledi ve bir ölçüde sizi kişisel konularda rahat bıraktı. Artık bu yıldan itibaren Plüton kazancınızı, birikimlerinizi artırma yönünde sizi daha mücadeleci kılacaktır. Yeteneklerinizi harekete geçirmeniz ve daha fazla maddi imkân ele geçirmeniz gerekiyor. Bu yüzden bu önemli transit, önümüzdeki 16 yıl boyunca, özellikle kariyer, para ve iş konularında hayatınıza yenilenme, değişim, kurumsallaşma, ciddiyet kazanma ve mücadele getirecektir.
Genel olarak iş konularına bakıldığında 2007 sonbaharından bu yana çok huzurlu değilsiniz. Satürn transiti dikkat çeken başarılar getirdiği gibi, çok fazla detay, iş yükü ve yeniden organize olma zorunluluğu taşıyor. Şimdi bu dönemde 2010 yılının ilk yarısına kadar, hem kariyerinizde önümüzdeki yedi yılı yeniden tanımlamak ve planlamak zorundasınız, hem de bir yandan ev, yerleşim, ailevi durumlarda yeni bir denge kurmak durumundasınız. Bu yıl iş ve ev arasında yepyeni koşullar getirecektir.
Bu yıl Jüpiter’in yani burcunuzun yöneticisinin desteğine de sahip olacaksınız. 5 Ocak’tan itibaren, eğitsel alanda, zihinsel konularda, yolculuklarda ve yapacağınız sözleşmelerde ilerleme sağlayabilir, yakınlarla ilişkilerinizi zenginleştirebilirsiniz. Ayrıca bu yıl idealize ettiğiniz konular, sosyal faaliyetler açısından da verimli geçebilir.

Şanslı alanlar
Jüpiter’in destekleyici açısı altında fırsatların olduğunu ve zekânızı daha verimli kullanabile-ceğinizi fark edeceksiniz. 5 Ocak’tan sonra eğitsel konulara yönelmek, yabancılarla ilgili işlere girişmek ve hareket halinde olmak hem kişisel hem de kariyer alanında sizi zenginleştirecektir. Bu zenginleşme parasal yönde değil, bilgi ve iletişim alanında olacaktır.
Bu arada Neptün 14 - 19 Aralık doğumlu Yay’ları daha fazla etkileyecek. Bu tarihlerde doğan Yay’lar sosyal alanda, idealist çalışmalar içinde, gruplarla daha fazla ilgilenebilirler.
29 Ekim’den sonra burcunuzu, özellikle 23 - 27 Kasım tarihli Yay’ları destekleyecek olan Satürn kariyer alanında daha dengeli bir ilerleme getirecek. 29 Ekim’den sonra üzerinizdeki yükün hafiflediğini göreceksiniz.
Enerji ve savaş gezegeni Mars’ın burcunuzla uyumlu açılar içinde olduğu dönemlerde daha zahmetsiz ilerleyebilirsiniz. 4 Şubat - 15 Mart arasında yapacağınız sözleşmelerde çok daha girişken ve cesur davranabilirsiniz. 22 Nisan - 31 Mayıs arasında risk alabileceğiniz, yaratıcılığınızı ortaya koyabileceğiniz bir dönemde olacaksınız. 16 Ekim sonrasında ise yabancılara ilişkin konular, eğitim, akademik uğraşlar, yurtdışına ait gelişmeler ve belki de hukuki konular daha fazla enerjinizi alacak. Ancak Aralık ayından itibaren bu projelerinizde, yavaşlama olabileceği gibi, bazı huzursuzluklar ve tartışmalar da yaşayabilirsiniz.

Zorlayıcı konular
Satürn-Uranüs arasındaki karşıtlık bu yıl ev ve iş arasındaki dengenizin değişebileceğini ve huzursuz olabileceğinizi göstermekte. Bu gerginlik özellikle 11-18 aralık doğumlu Yay’lar tarafından şiddetle hissedilecek. Bu dönemde doğanlar, esnek olmaya çalışmalı. İş alanında çok yük ve sorumluluk olduğu gibi, özel hayatınızda, eve ve yerleşime ait konularda da ani değişiklikler var. Söz konusu gerilim 29 Ekim’den sonra hafiflemeye başlasa da, tam anlamıyla geçmesi için 2010 yılının ikinci yarısını beklemelisiniz. Bu gerginliğin sağlığınızı bozmamasına önem vermelisiniz. Çünkü bir yandan başkaldırmak ve kendi yolunuzda ilerlemek isterken, işe ve kariyerinize ait sorumlulukların da önemini hissedeceksiniz. Bu durum yaşanan ekonomik gelişmelerden de kaynaklanıyor olabilir.
Ayrıca bu yıl 12 Temmuz -25 Ağustos döneminde ilişkilere, evlilik ve anlaşmalara daha ciddi yaklaşmalısınız. Gereksiz tartışmalara girmeniz ve sadece kendinizin haklı olduğunu düşünmeniz, haklı olsanız bile düşmanlar kazanmanıza yol açabilir.

Merkür’ün geri hareketi
Merkür bu yıl 11 Ocak - 1 Şubat, 7 - 31 Mayıs, 7 - 29 Eylül tarihleri arasında geri harekette olacak. Bu dönemlerden ilkinde sözleşmeler, eğitime ya da yolculuklara ait konularda, ikincisinde sözleşmeler ve ikili ilişkilerde, evlilikte, anlaşmalarda, sonuncusunda ise grup çalışmaları, arkadaşlıklar ve geleceğe yönelik beklentilerinizde doğabilecek gecikmeyi göz ardı etmemelisiniz.



YAY 23 Kasım 21 Aralık

Para, iş hayatı ve kariyer
2007 Eylül’ünden bu yana kariyerinizde kısıtlayıcı şartlar içindesiniz. Bu koşulların bir bölümü, sizin dışınızdaki nedenlerden olabilir. 2010 ortasına kadar sürecek olan Satürn-Uranüs karşıtlığı, bu yıl iş ve özel hayatınızdaki konuları dengeleme uğraşında olacağınızı göstermekte.
29 Ekim’den sonra işte üzerinizdeki stresler azalırken, özellikle grup çalışmaları açısından yeni bir döneme gireceksiniz.
Bu yıl yeni sözleşmeler, anlaşmalar, güzel fırsatlar getirmekte. Bu sözleşmeleri 15 Haziran’a kadar tamamlayabilir ve 13 Ekim’den sonra da olumlu yönlerini görmeye başlayabilirsiniz. Plüton’un Oğlak burcuna ilerlemesi de, maddi alanda daha fazla kazanmak için mücadeleye gireceğinizi anlatmakta.

Sağlık
Hareketli ve iyimser bir yapıya sahip olsanız da, bu yıl ortaya çıkan gerginlikler yüzünden sağlığınıza daha fazla önem vermelisiniz. Özellikle 11-18 Aralık doğumlu Yay’lar stresli koşullar karşısında kendilerine özen göstermeliler. Stres getirebilecek bir dönem de, 31 Mayıs-25 Ağustos arasında olabilir.

Eğitim
2009’da eğitim konusunda en şanslı burçlardan birisisiniz. Bu yıl uzun zamandan beri ertelediğiniz eğitim olanaklarını yeniden bulabilirsiniz. Yeni bir dil öğrenmek ya da istediğiniz alanda ilerlemek açısından başarılı bir yıl olacak.






YAY KADINI İÇİN AŞK
Mars’ın burcunuzla uyumlu olduğu dönemlerde ilişkilerinizde daha tutkulu ve hareketli olabilirsiniz. 4 Şubat-15 Mart, 22 Nisan-31 Mayıs ve 16 Ekim sonrası Mars’ın akıcı enerjiler getirdiği dönemlerdir. Bununla birlikte, 12 Temmuz-25 Ağustos arasında iddialaşmalar, fikirlerin çatışması yüzünden yaşayabileceğiniz bazı huzursuzluklar olabilir.


YAY ERKEĞİ İÇİN AŞK
Bu yıl Venüs’ün burcunuzla uyumlu açılarda olduğu dönemlerde aşkta daha mutlu olabilir, ilişkilerinizden keyif alabilirsiniz. 3 Şubat-6 Mart, 24 Nisan-6 Haziran, 5 Temmuz-1 Ağustos, 26 Ağustos-20 Eylül, özellikle 2-25 Aralık böyle dönemlerdir. Venüs’ün geri harekette olacağı 6 Mart-17 Nisan döneminde evlilik ve anlaşmalarda daha dikkatli olmalısınız. Bu tarihler arasında evlilik yapmak çok uyumlu sonuçlar getirmeyebilir.


Yükselen burçlarına göre Yay
YÜKSELEN KOÇ 2009 sonbaharından bu yana iş ortamında aşırı yük söz konusu. Neyse ki kasımdan itibaren bu yoğun çalışmalarınızın karşılığını almaya başlayacaksınız. Bu yıl arkadaşlıklar, takım çalışmaları açısından oldukça şanslısınız.

YÜKSELEN BOĞA Bu yıl kariyerinizde yeni fırsatlara odaklanacaksınız. Ayaklarınızı yere sağlam bastığınız sürece, 2009 işte öne çıkma getirecek. Sonbaharda iş hayatında daha dikkatli olma gereği var. Bu dönemde iş ortamında ilişkilerinize de önem vermelisiniz.

YÜKSELEN İKİZLER 2009 kendinizi geliştir-meniz açısından çok bereketli bir yıl olacak. Eğitsel konular ve yurtdışına ait gelişmelerde daha aktifsiniz ve şanslısınız. Ayrıca bu yıl son yedi yıldır üzerinde çalıştığınız konuların sonuçlarını da almaya başlayacaksınız.

YÜKSELEN YENGEÇ Geçtiğimiz yıldan bu yana ilişkilerinizde, evlilikte ve ortaklaşa konularda bir dönüşüm içindesiniz. İlişkilerinizde ortaya koyduğunuz hassasiyeti dengelemeye bakmalı, zayıflıklarınızı daha iyi görmelisiniz. Değişiklikler karşısında direnmemeniz en iyisi.

YÜKSELEN ASLAN 2009 evlilik, anlaşmalar ve ortaklaşa konular açısından pek çok fırsatla dolu. 2007 sonbaharından bu yana maddi konularda çok fazla kısıtlama söz konusuydu neyse ki kasımdan itibaren sahip olduğunuz birikimleri daha iyi değerlendirebileceksiniz.

YÜKSELEN BAŞAK 2007 sonbaharından beri Satürn size çok fazla yük getirdi. Kasımdan sonra bu kısıtlamaların dağıldığını görecek-siniz. İşte ortaklaşa kazançlar ve ciddiyet gerektiren yeni projeler olabilir. İş ortamında kendinizi geliştirebileceğiniz şanslar var.

YÜKSELEN TERAZİ Son iki yıldır işle ilgili alanda ve genel olarak hayatınızın akışında büyük bir karmaşa var. Pek çok şey dağılmakta ve sona ermekte. Bu yıl kasımdan sonra belirsizliklerin azalacağını göreceksiniz ve kişisel alanda çok daha net olabileceksiniz.

YÜKSELEN AKREP Bu yıl ev ve ailevi konulara önemli bir hareketlilik getirecek. Yeni bir yere yerleşmek ya da aileden destek almak söz konusu olabilir. Ancak kasım ayından itibaren evlilik, ortaklıklar gibi konularda daha dikkatli davranmalısınız.

YÜKSELEN YAY 2007 sonbaharından bu yana iş hayatında artan yükler kariyerinizdeki hızınızı yavaşlattı. Kasımdan sonra kendinizi yaratıcı hissettiğiniz alanlarda yeni riskler almaya başlayacaksınız. Bu yıl eğitsel konular açısından oldukça şanslısınız.

YÜKSELEN OĞLAK 2009’da yeteneklerinizi geliştirmek ve bu yeteneklerden kazanç elde etmek açısından güzel olanaklar var. Kasım ayından itibaren işte yükselmeler olabileceği gibi, fazlasıyla test de edilebilir siniz. Anlaşmalar hayatınıza yeni şekiller verebilir.

YÜKSELEN KOVA Jüpiter sayesinde bu yıl yenilikler, başlangıçlar açısından oldukça iyimser ve keyifli geçecek. Geleceğe yönelik hedeflerinizde daha iyimser olacaksınız. Akademik konular, yurtdışına ilişkin imkanların önü açılabilir.

YÜKSELEN BALIK Bu yıl ortaklaşa alanda, evlilik ve anlaşmalarda ani değişiklikler gündeme gelebilir. Kasımdan sonra mali durumunuza ve ortaklaşa konulara daha sorumlu biçimde yaklaşabilirsiniz. Borç alacak, yatırımlar, miras gibi konularla da uğraşabilirsiniz.

Friday, December 26, 2008

Thursday, December 25, 2008

2009 - Akrepler

R. HAKAN KIRKOĞLU hkirkoglu@e-kolay.net
güncellenme zamanı 25.12.2008

akrep astroloji burç özellikleri
Jüpiter bu yıl eve ait yatırımlar ve yeni bir yere yerleşim konularında sizi şanslı kılmakta

Bu yıl genel olarak destekleyici açılar dikkat çekiyor. Zorlayıcı transitler yok değil ancak pek çok alanda ilerleme sağlayabileceksiniz. 2003’ten bu yana burcunuzla uyumlu bir açıda olan Uranüs, sizi çok daha özgür, yaratıcı alanda yenilikçi, aşkta farklı ve bağımsız kılmakta. Pek çok Akrep açısından bu transit, ani bir aşk, bir çocuğun doğumu ya da yaratıcı alanda ortaya koymaya başladığı bir ilgi ya da hobi anlamına gelmekte. Bu yıl özellikle Uranüs’ün değiştiren, yenileyen, elektriklendiren enerjisini 12 - 19 Kasım doğumlu Akrep’ler almakta. Bugünlerde doğanlar hayatlarında değişiklik yapmaktan korkmamalı ve kişisel yeteneklerini açığa çıkarmaya bakmalılar.
Bu özgürleşme, yenilenme ve yaratıcılığını daha bağımsız biçimde ortaya koyma etkisinin yanında, 2007 sonbaharından itibaren, geleceğe yönelik hedeflerinizde daha dikkatli ve bir ölçüde kontrolcü hale gelmeye başladınız. Bu yeni dönemde grup çalışmaları özellikle kariyerinizi, işinizi ilgilendiren alanlarda daha faza organizasyon ve iş yükü ortaya çıkmakta.
29 Ekim’den sonra ve 2010 yılı ikinci yarısında daha net hale gelecek şekilde, ilişkilere, evliliğe ve ortaklaşa konulara daha kontrollü ve önlemci yaklaşmanız gerekecek.
Satürn’ün 29 Ekim’de Terazi burcuna geçmesi bazı çözülmelere, sonlanmalara ve yeni arayışlara yol açabilir. Bu yeni süreçte, iş ortaklıkları üzerinizde yük gibi görülebilir. Evlilik konusu yine zorlanabilir. Kısaca anlaşmalara, ortaklaşa konulara özen göstermeli ve mümkün olduğu kadar şeffaf olmaya bakmalısınız.
Bu yıl Jüpiter’in konumu evle ilgili konularda genişleme fırsatlarının olacağını göstermekte. Evde yeni bir doğum olabileceği gibi, eve ait yatırımlar da gündeme gelebilir.

Şanslı alanlar
Yukarıda değindiğimiz gibi Jüpiter bu yıl eve ait yatırımlar ve yeni bir yere yerleşim konularında sizi şanslı kılmakta. Oturduğunuz yerdeki şartları daha iyi hale getirebilirsiniz.
Özellikle 12-19 Kasım doğumlu Akrepler risk aldıkları konularda, yaratıcı alanda kendi içlerinden geldiği gibi hareket etmek isteyecek ve oldukça başarılı olacak.
Geçtiğimiz yıldan başlayarak Plüton da burcunuza olumlu bir destek vermeye başladı ve bu uzun yıllar alacak bir süreç. Bu yıl özellikle 24-27 Ekim doğumlu Akrep’ler iş hayatında güçlü kişilerden destek görebilirler.
Enerji ve savaş gezegeni Mars’ın burcunuzla uyumlu açılar içinde olduğu dönemlerde daha zahmetsiz ilerleyebilirsiniz. 4 Şubat’a kadar olan dönemde sözlerinizle güçlü etki yaratabilecek bir dönemde olacaksınız. 15 Mart - 22 Nisan döneminde yaratıcı konular, aşk hayatınız ve risk aldığınız pek çok konuda daha cesursunuz. 25 Ağustos-16 Ekim döneminde inançlarınız konusunda mücadele söz konusu olabilir.

Zorlayıcı konular
Özellikle mayıs-haziran döneminde eve ait konularda uyanık davranmak gerekebilir. Bu yıl 15-20 Kasım doğumlular Neptün’ün karesi altında hayat yönlerinde karmaşa hissediyorlar. Kadınlar açısından bu, eşleri ile ya da baba ile ilgili problemler anlamına gelebilir. Neptün’ün bu zorlayıcı transiti kararlarda bulanıklık, yanlış anlamalar ve aldanmalar getirebilir.
Genel olarak iş hayatında otorite figürleri ya da devletle olan ilişkilerde açık ve dürüst davranmanın önemi çok büyük.
Sonbahardan itibaren anlaşmalara, ortaklıklara daha ciddi yaklaşma gereği doğabilir. 16 Ekim’den sonra Mars, Aslan burcuna ilerleyecek ve daha sonra 20 Aralık 2009-10 Mart 2010 döneminde geri harekette olacak. Bu dönemde dikkatli olmazsanız, işte, mesleki alanda, otorite figürleri ile ilgili konularda aşırı gururun getirebileceği çatışmalar olabilir. Bu nedenle 16 Ekim’den sonra dikkat çekmek, başarılı olmak istediğiniz konularda sinirlerinize hakim olabilmeli ve gereksiz tartışmalara girmemelisiniz.

Merkür’ün geri hareketi
Merkür bu yıl 11 Ocak - 1 Şubat, 7-31 Mayıs, 7-29 Eylül tarihleri arasında geri harekette olacak. Bu dönemlerden ilkinde eve, yerleşime ait konularda, ikincisinde finansal konularda, sözleşmelerde, miras, sigorta, borç- alacak işlerinde, sonuncusundaysa elde olmayan, özellikle ilişkiler, evlilik ya da anlaşmalara daha fazla dikkat etmeli, bu alanlarda doğabilecek gecikme ve sıkıntıları göz ardı etmemelisiniz.

AKREP KADINI İÇİN AŞK
Mars’ın burcunuzla uyumlu olduğu dönem-lerde ilişkilerinizde daha tutkulu ve hareketli olabilirsiniz. 4 Şubat’a kadar olan dönem, özellikle 15 Mart-22 Nisan, 25 Ağustos- 16 Ekim Mars’ın akıcı enerjiler getirdiği dönemlerdir. Bununla birlikte, 31 Mayıs- 12 Temmuz döneminde kıskançlıklara ve tartışmalara dikkat etmek gerekiyor. Bu dönemde güvensizlikler yaşanabilir.

AKREP ERKEĞİ İÇİN AŞK
Bu yıl Venüs’ün burcunuzla uyumlu açılarda olduğu dönemlerde aşkta daha mutlu olabilir, ilişkilerinizden keyif alabilirsiniz. 3 Ocak-3 Şubat, 1-24 Nisan, 6 Haziran-5 Temmuz, 1-26 Ağustos, özellikle 8 Kasım-2 Aralık böyle dönemlerdir. Venüs’ün geri harekette olacağı 6 Mart-17 Nisan döneminde evlilik ve anlaşmalarda daha dikkatli olmalısınız. Bu tarihler arasında evlilik yapmak çok olumlu sonuçlar getirmeyebilir.

Para, iş hayatı ve kariyer
Bu yıl enerjinizi ve hevesinizi iyi kullanmanız gereken bir yıldasınız. 29 Ekim’den sonra hedeflerden sıyrılmaya başlayabilirsiniz. Bu yıl özellikle 15-20 Kasım doğumlu Akrep’ler kariyer alanında dağılmalar yaşayabilir. Ancak 24-28 Ekim doğumlu Akrep’ler tam tersine yepyeni enerjiler ve motivasyonla dolular. Otorite figürlerinden destek görebilir ve süregelen ekonomik krize çok daha iyi uyum sağlayabilirler. Parasal alanda, yatırımlardan yararlanma imkânı olabilir. Jüpiter’in konumu özellikle topraktan, aileden ya da evden kaynaklanabilecek fırsatların olabileceğini göstermekte.
Kariyer alanında 16 Ekim sonrasındaki şartlara özel bir önem vermelisiniz. Bu tarihten sonra başlayabilecek bir projede uzun vadeli düşünmek gerekebilir.

Sağlık
Sağlık açısından sert transitler yok, ancak 15-20 Kasım doğumlular ilaç kullanımına daha dikkat etmeli. 29 Ekim sonrasında duygusal konular yine huzursuz edici olabilir. Genel olarak 22 Nisan- 25 Ağustos arasında bedeninize daha fazla özen göstermelisiniz. 22 Nisan-31 Mayıs arasında fazla çalışma ve aşırı fiziksel egzersiz yarardan çok zarar getirebilir.

Eğitim
Eğitim hayatında daha hırslı olabileceğiniz bir yıldasınız. Özellikle 24-28 Ekim doğumlu Akrep’ler bu yıl hedeflerine ulaşmakta oldukça azimli davranacaklar.

Wednesday, December 24, 2008

First snow fall in Istanbul



24 December 2008, Belgrad Forest of northern Istanbul

Sunday, December 21, 2008

Osho's visions

Happiness : If you are unhappy you have a reason to be unhappy; if you are happy you are simply happy ― there is no reason for it. Your mind tries to find a reason because it cannot believe in the uncaused because it can not control the uncaused ― with the uncaused the mind simply becomes impotent. So the mind goes on finding some reason or other. But I would like to tell you that whenever you are happy, you are happy for no reason at all, whenever you are unhappy, you have some reason to be unhappy ― because happiness is just the stuff you are made of. It is your very being, it is your innermost core.

Joy is your innermost core. Look at the trees, look at the birds, look at the clouds, look at the stars...and if you have eyes you will be able to see that the whole existence is joyful. Everything is simply happy. Trees are happy for no reason; they are not going to become prime ministers or presidents and they are not going to become rich and they will never have any bank balance. Look at the flowers ― for no reason. It is simply unbelievable how happy flowers are.

The whole existence is made of the stuff called joy.

Courage: In the beginning there is no big difference between the coward and the courageous person. Both have fear. The difference is, the coward listens to his fears and follows them. The courageous person puts them aside and goes ahead. The fears are there, he knows them, but the courageous person goes into the unknown in spite of all the fears. Courage does not mean fearlessness, but going into the unknown in spite of all the fears.

Change: When you go into the uncharted sea, like Columbus did, there is fear, immense fear, because one never knows what is going to happen and you are leaving the shore of safety. You were perfectly okay, in a way; only one thing was missing - adventure. Going into the unknown gives you a thrill. The heart starts pulsating; again you are alive, fully alive. Every fiber of your being is alive because you have accepted the challenge of the unknown.


Awareness: Misery arises because we don´t allow change to happen. We cling, we want things to be static. If you love a woman you want her tomorrow too, the same way as she is yours today. That´s how misery arises. Nobody can be certain about the next moment - what to say about tomorrow?

Right awareness means not only awareness - because awareness can become a strain - right awareness means awareness without any strain, relaxed. One can try to be aware but can create tension on the way, and that tension will destroy the whole work. So these two things have to be remembered: awareness with no strain, with no tension.

Awareness is a flowering of relaxation. Wherever you feel any tension in the body, relax that part. If your whole body is relaxed, your awareness will grow faster. Just watch, just see, make no effort, do not strive; an effortless awareness. In the beginning it looks very paradoxical - effortlessness and awareness - but once you start working on it, slowly slowly the knack is learned. It is a knack. And once you have learned the knack, once you have known even a single moment of awareness without tension, you are on the right track; you will never be the same person again.

Just relax and let things be as they are. A very very passive awareness - that is the meaning of meditation. If sometimes you forget watching, perfectly good! When you remember, you watch again. When you forget, you forget. This is relaxation, this is accepting life as it comes. Then great joy arises out of it. You are never tired and you are never distracted because nothing can distract you.



A man of awareness knows that life is constantly changing. Life is change. There is only one thing permanent, and that is change. Except change, everything else changes. To accept this nature of life, to accept this changing existence with all its seasons and moods, this constant flow that never stops for a single moment, is to be blissful. Then nobody can disturb your bliss. It is your hankering for permanency that creates troubles for you. If you want to live in a life with no change - you are asking the impossible.

A man of awareness becomes courageous enough to accept the changing phenomena. In that very acceptance is bliss. Then all is good. Then you are never frustrated.


To accept the challenge of the unknown is courage. The fears are there, but if you go on accepting the challenge again and again, slowly, slowly those fears disappear. The joy that the unknown brings, the great ecstasy that starts happening with the unknown, makes you strong enough, gives you a certain integrity, makes your intelligence sharp. You start feeling that life is not just a boredom. Life is an adventure. Slowly, slowly fears disappear and you go on seeking and searching for new adventures.

Courage is risking the known for the unknown, the familiar for the unfamiliar, the comfortable for the uncomfortable arduous pilgrimage to some unknown destination. One never knows whether one will be able to make it or not. It is a gambling, but only the gamblers know what life is.


Creativity: The distinction between the subjective and the objective art is basically based on meditation. Anything that comes out of the mind will remain subjective art, and anything that comes out of no-mind, out of silence, out of meditation, will be objective art.

This definition is simple and will destroy your confusion. Whether you are creating something ― you may be a sculptor, you may be a carpenter, you may be a painter, a poet, a singer, a musician ― all that has to be remembered is that it is coming out of a silence within you, that it has a spontaneity. It is not prearranged, preprogrammed, pre-thought. As you are creating something you go on being surprised yourself ― you have left yourself in the hands of existence.

Saturday, December 20, 2008

Seasonal mood at home



Awaiting a great year to live...
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to all of us.

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

My paintings





Seagull and Yatch, 15 x 25cm acrylic
Autumn. 20 x 20cm sticht cross
japoniese rose, 30 x 30cm acrylic

Thursday, December 11, 2008

Earth's Core Crystal

CNN - July 1996
Deep inside the Earth, spinning in a watery pool of iron, the Earth's core is a giant iron crystal slightly smaller but more dense than the moon. Beyond that, the substance at the heart of our planet always has been a mystery. Although seismologist Xiaodong Song acknowledged the mystery is "really a complicated problem," he and fellow seismologist Paul Richards have managed to unravel it. They announced that their relatively superficial study of 28 years' worth of earthquake records at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory shows the core is in motion, and going at a pretty good clip.
The Columbia scientists measured the underground effects of earthquakes, determining how quickly their movement travels through the center of the Earth to other places on the globe. The scientists have learned that the Earth's core is turning in an eastward direction and spinning faster than the Earth itself. Every 400 years, the core is a full turn ahead of the Earth.
"The really surprising thing is how fast the core is moving," Richards said. They estimate the core moves about 100,000 times faster than the movements of the Earth's tectonic plates. This information about the Earth's core may shed new light on how the Earth works. For starters, the core's motion could help explain why magnetic north and south periodically wander or reverse over Earth's history. "This rotation that has been found allows us to go forward in understanding the Earth's magnetic field. So we think we understand it better than we did before this observation," seismologist Paul Silver said. Gravitational pull and seismic activity also could be viewed differently because of this discovery.
Earth's Inner Core Wikipedia


Crystal at the Center of the Earth

A Seismic Adventure
There's a giant crystal buried deep within the Earth, at the very center, more than 3,000 miles down. It may sound like the latest fantasy adventure game or a new Indiana Jones movie, but it happens to be what scientists discovered in 1995 with a sophisticated computer model of Earth's inner core. This remarkable finding, which offers plausible solutions to some perplexing geophysical puzzles, is transforming what Earth scientists think about the most remote part of our planet.
"To understand what's deep in the Earth is a great challenge," says geophysicist Lars Stixrude. "Drill holes go down only 12 kilometers, about 0.2 percent of the Earth's radius. Most of the planet is totally inaccessible to direct observation." What scientists have pieced together comes primarily from seismic data. When shock waves from earthquakes ripple through the planet, they are detected by sensitive instruments at many locations on the surface. The record of these vibrations reveals variations in their path and speed to scientists who can then draw inferences about the planet's inner structure. This work has added much knowledge over the last ten years, including a puzzling observation: Seismic waves travel faster north-south than east-west, about four seconds faster pole-to-pole than through the equator.
This finding, confirmed only within the past two years, quickly led to the conclusion that Earth's solid-iron inner core is "anisotropic" -- it has a directional quality, a texture similar to the grain in wood, that allows sound waves to go faster when they travel in a certain direction. What, exactly, is the nature of this inner-core texture? To this question, the seismic data responds with sphinx-like silence. "The problem," says Ronald Cohen of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, "is then we're stymied. We know there's some kind of structure, the data tells us that, but we don't know what it is. If we knew the sound velocities in iron at the pressure and temperature of the inner core, we could get somewhere." To remedy this lack of information, Stixrude and Cohen turned to the CRAY C90 at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.
Earth's layered structure -- a relatively thin crust of mobile plates, a solid mantle with gradual overturning movement, and the outer and inner core of molten and solid iron.

Getting to the Core
Don't believe Jules Verne. The center of the Earth is not a nice place to visit, unless you like hanging out in a blast furnace. The outer core of the Earth, about two-thirds of the way to the center, is molten iron. Deeper yet, at the inner core, the pressure is so great - 3.5 million times surface pressure -- that iron solidifies, even though the temperature is believed to exceed 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit, hotter than the surface of the sun.
Despite rapid advances in high-pressure laboratory techniques, it's not yet possible to duplicate these conditions experimentally, and until Stixrude and Cohen's work, scientists could at best make educated guesses about iron's atom-to-atom architecture - its crystal structure - at the extremes that prevail in the inner core. Using a quantum-based approach called density-functional theory, Stixrude and Cohen set out to do better than an educated guess. With recent improvements in numerical techniques, density-functional theory had predicted iron's properties at low pressure with high accuracy, leading the researchers to believe that with supercomputing they could, in effect, reach 3,000 miles down into the inner core and pull out what they needed.

Three crystal structures of iron.
Yellow lines show bonds between iron atoms.
Rethinking Inner Earth

On Earth's surface, iron comes in three flavors, standard crystalline forms known to scientists as body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp). Working with these three structures as their only input, Stixrude and Cohen carried out an extensive study - more than 200 separate calculations over two years - to determine iron's quantum-mechanical properties over a range of high pressures. "Without access to the C90," says Stixrude, "this work would have taken so long it wouldn't have been done."
Prevalent opinion before these calculations held that iron's crystal structure in the inner core was bcc. To the contrary, the calculations showed, bcc iron is unstable at high pressure and not likely to exist in the inner core. For the other two candidates, fcc and hcp, Stixrude and Cohen found that both can exist at high pressure and both would be directional (anisotropic) in how they transmit sound. Hcp iron, however, gives a better fit with the seismic data. All this was new information, but even more surprising was this: To fit the observed anisotropy, the grain-like texture of the inner core had to be much more pronounced than previously thought.

"Hexagonal crystals have a unique directionality," says Stixrude, "which must be aligned and oriented with Earth's spin axis for every crystal in the inner core." This led Stixrude and Cohen to try a computational experiment. If all the crystals must point in the same direction, why not one big crystal? The results, published in Science, offer the simplest, most convincing explanation yet put forward for the observed seismic data and have stirred new thinking about the inner core.
Could an iron ball 1,500 miles across be a single crystal? Unheard of until this work, the idea has prompted realization that the temperature-pressure extremes of the inner core offer ideal conditions for crystal growth. Several high-pressure laboratories have experiments planned to test these results. A strongly oriented inner core could also explain anomalies of Earth's magnetic field, such as tilted field lines near the equator. "To do these esoteric quantum calculations," says Stixrude, "solutions which you can get only with a supercomputer, and get results you can compare directly with messy observations of nature and help explain them -- this has been very exciting."

Sunday, December 7, 2008

Somethings are happening by accidentally in our lifes?

Do you beleive something happening accidentally in life??? I do not..

Yesteray I was thinking about beleives, awaeness and what is our real capability. And I wrote my thoughts on the blog by highlights. Last night I received an email about this subject.

The sender was worning that, we have to ready before to read... So I want to share with you but if you think you are not ready to meet who and what you are, just pass this artical beforehand to read.

Or lets go to a journey to discover ourselves...

...................................................
It's in the DNA!

This live channelling was Given in Kelowna, BC, Canada
June 28, 2008

To help the reader, this channelling has been rechannelled [by Lee and Kryon] and added onto to provide even clearer understanding. Often what happens live has implied energy within it, which carries a kind of communication that the printed page does not. So enjoy this enhanced message given in beautiful Kelowna.
________________________________________
Greetings, dear ones, I am Kryon of Magnetic Service.

Some of you will feel the sister/brother speaking to you now, for this day is a teaching day. It is going to be the unraveling of some of the complex messages we've been giving you for a year. It's to be unraveled with three-dimensional attributes, so that it's clearer for you, so that it can be taught with synchronicity. In this synchronous fashion, it becomes therefore linear, and it's time for the entire message-set to be shown and told.

Before we begin this teaching, I wish to make a statement: Blessed is the Human Being who walks out of this place untouched. Blessed is this Human Being who does not believe one word of this, and who is blind to the light we teach, for he'll have the same number of angels walk out with him that will walk out with you. For it's not about the right or the wrong of who "takes it in" or who does not. It is simply about the energy of the information and the free choice that is here. Loved beyond measure, each of you are, for you are a piece of God. I know who is here. I know the names of who is here... those spiritual names that we sing in light. It is the name of your Higher-Self.

I wish to move forward into this teaching and I'm going to give my partner some information now that he does not expect. What is taught tonight in channel is also to be taught in lecture in the future. What I am telling my partner for all to hear right now is that I wish for him to develop this information and teach it so that others will hear it out of channel so it will not be as cryptic. A Human teaching a Human in 3D is far more successful than anything that I could ever teach through him in this channelling state. So I imbue into him the knowledge and the power to teach this in a succinct and clear manner. What we're teaching today is the power of the Akash. We have hinted at it. We have told you snippets of information about it. We have given you some hints on what it means, and now I wish to unravel the story.

We have told you in the past about an energy that comes in with you, which is the Akash. You have heard the term the Akashic Record. This is a record of the Akash. The definition of the Akash is an energy that represents everything that is. The Akashic Record, therefore, is a record of all that has been and more. The concept of the Akash represents all that is, and the potentials of everything that can be. In 3D, the Akashic Record is an archive of things accomplished. However, difficult to explain, it is also a record of things potentially unrealized.

There are two kinds of Akashic Record: One is global and one is personal. The global one is contained in that place we have spoken of so many times in this last year, the Cave of Creation. It is a physical place on this planet, filled with crystalline energy. You might say that every single Human Being who is hearing this or reading this has a crystal in that cave. That's not exactly interdimensionally accurate, but it's the best we can give you in 3D. This makes it simple for you to visualize. Each of you has a physical object in this sacred place that is sacred, is crystalline, and stays on this planet after you are gone.

The hard part about this explanation is that this crystal is timeless. That is to say it carries with it the core energy of your Higher-Self when you are here on the planet. When you are not here, the energy of this object is placed upon the Crystalline Grid, which is global. All that you ever were on this planet is imbued, permeated, to the grid. Therefore, you might say that your Higher-Self still resides with Earth. At some level, you would be right. This also explains how a Human can "talk to the dead." For in a timeless state, everyone who ever lived is still here, within the crystalline.

An Overview of Coming and Going - The First Kind of Akashic Record

When you come into the planet, you activate this unique personal crystalline structure, and your Higher-Self is then responsible - the caretaker - for this crystal while you are here. The Higher-Self of each Human is always on my side of the veil, but it has tendrils, you might say, that allow parts and pieces of it to interface with you and the planet. These are the parts that you get in contact with when you meditate. Once you arrive on Earth, the energy of the Higher-Self is connected to Earth for as long as Earth exists.

The life that you live right now becomes etched upon this crystalline structure. The decisions you make, spiritual and otherwise, all of the things that you experience, what you go through as a Human Being, all are imbued to this crystal. The properties of crystalline structures are well known in your science. It is a mineral that has an atomic structure that has long-term atomic order. This creates a unique attribute discovered early, which is that of memory. In our case, it is way beyond anything your science will ever have... a crystalline structure that contains sacred life lessons, knowledge, memory and remembrance. What you don't realize, or understand in 3D, is that the crystalline also has the potential of the future imbedded within it. Difficult to explain, it is, but let's keep it simple for now.

You live your life on Earth. When you are complete and experience what you call death, which we call transition, you come back to the Cave of Creation for a moment. At that point, everything you experienced and learned gets sealed into this crystalline object, and then your earthly essence and the personal sacred portion of your Higher-Self leaves the planet.

You might say that this crystalline record is like the rings of an interdimensional tree. It places upon itself a lifetime at a time, everything you learned and all that your DNA has collected. This is far more profound than you expect, for the changes that have occurred in your awareness, if any, remain on this planet in the form of vibratory shift. It remains here for the rest of the civilization, because it is placed onto the Crystalline Grid of the very earth itself. Therefore, you might say that the very earth resounds with your vibration... past and present.

Nothing is wasted; nothing is lost, dear Human Being. What you do here stays here. All the things you did, all the decisions, all the epiphanies, the love, the joy, the drama and the sorrow... they're not just for you, they're for the earth. The vibration of the earth itself, therefore, is made up of the trillions of lifetimes of energy created by humanity for approximately 50,000 years.

It's not a time-capsule, for it's active all the time. A time capsule is passive. Interdimensional things are always in the "now." Therefore, there is no "time stamp" on any of this. It just "is," and is "seen" by the planet as always current. That means that whatever you experienced is still being experienced and is fresh.

After a period of Earth time, you may revisit the earth. Most of you do, for a lifetime on the planet is like a day in the life of a grander scheme. The grander scheme is an overview of hundreds of your lifetimes, and Spirit sees you not as a Human in this life, but as a timeless, sacred entity that is part of the family of God, working for Earth, who has been here over and over in different incarnations or "expressions of karmic energy." This is very difficult for you to understand and accept, for you think life begins at birth and ends at death. That is no more true than a perception of life beginning at dawn and ending at dusk. It continues and continues and each life is like a day in a grander life. You continue to awaken and sleep... over and over.

You have called this process reincarnation. An expression of your Higher-Self again comes into the earth. It's the same Higher-Self, by the way. Think about that for a moment... many lives, many faces, both genders... same Higher-Self. It comes in as it has before and places the new energy as a beginning addition into the crystal that is yours. You are then born on this planet and you continue the journey seemingly as someone else. Then you live that life. When you're finished, what you experienced and learned becomes another ring on the crystal. Over time, this sacred crystalline structure is imbued with hundreds of rings of lifetimes. One Higher-Self, many lifetimes, many names and faces... all YOU. That is the essence of the Cave of Creation and the process of the Crystalline Grid. It's how it works. Whatever you do stays here on this planet and contributes to the energy of all humanity that will follow.

That is the overview of the Akashic Record in the Cave of Creation. The difficult part to explain is how it also contains the future. For all the potentials of the lives you may live are also on the Crystalline Grid. It helps to posture who you'll be the next time around. I cannot explain this to you and I'm not going to try, except to say that there is purpose in all these things. Many have called it karma, a continuation of unfinished business, much like waking up tomorrow to the errands of the day that you didn't get to yet. The errands wait for you... they are the future. But in the case of an interdimensional energy, they have always been there, and will effect what you do when you wake up.

The Second Kind of Akashic Record

Now, let us move on to the teaching of today. There is another kind of Akashic Record, the second kind. There is a mini-Akashic record that occurs in your DNA itself upon birth. It is shaped in the womb and given at birth. This is the Akashic Record of who you are and who you have been on Earth. It also contains the potentials of what you might do, carried within the layers of the DNA within you. This may sound like the same attributes of the crystalline record in the Cave of Creation, but it is not. The record in the cave is for all humanity. It is connected to the Crystalline Grid of the earth. The purpose of the one in your DNA is personal discovery, awareness, karma, and life lessons.

It is esoteric. It is even odd to you, is it not? Some may even call it unbelievable that in your DNA is the record of who you ever were. Let us speak of that. We're going to talk about how it affects you. We're going to talk about what it means. All of these things we give you in a small amount of time, condensed into this message today.

Some of you are asking, "Well, Kryon, right away there is a puzzle. I understand what you're saying. You're about to teach the fact that we come in with many energies from the past. But what about the first timer on Earth? They have a crystal that has no rings, you might say. It has no energy of past expression, no past experience on Earth. So what about that? What happens then?"

This is a very logical question. There is a well-known energy of a newcomer that is unique to the planet. Most of you reading this have experienced it. Also, there are many newcomers! Know this: Kryon is very aware of geometric progression. That is to say that the Human Beings on this planet grow exponentially in number. As the population grows, that means, dear Human Beings, that there are many, many first timers. For whatever the percentage of those who are old souls, there's even a higher percentage of those who have never been here. We know that. It's part of the plan and the energy of Earth. So this message does not apply to those who have never been here. At other times, we have discussed the attributes of the first timer. You are beyond that.

I am aware of where I am, in this place you call Kelowna, in this country you call Canada. I speak of this now for those who will hear and read later of where we are. In this room of those hearing in real time, there is not one first timer. All of you have been here before. Therefore, this message is succinct and efficient for all of you in the room. There is no one here that it does not apply to. There are some here who are very old souls, original source souls called Lemurians. There are many of you who are not, but who have come into this planetary plain so many times that the etchings are by the hundreds on the grid. Old souls, you are, I speak to you now. Listen, because this is important to the Lightworkers.

It's in the DNA

A child is born and the DNA carries energies of the Akash right into his personality. Immediately these energies can be seen by all. The first thing that happens is karmic residue. Karma is real. Some of the most profound belief systems on this planet, which are esoteric, speak of this. Some of the oldest belief systems you have teach karma first. They know of this system of coming and going and what it means to have it.

We told you 19 years ago that karma was one of the first things that you could change in this new energy. We told you that the Lightworker will automatically drop it when they give pure intent to move to greater awareness. We told you it was the "implantation of permission to drop karma." [Back in 1989, it was called "the implant".] Karma is the energy carried over from a former lifetime regarding unfinished lessons, which need not be learned this time around for any of you. That is one of the gifts of the great shift upon you. This is not new news. Within our example above, the child that is born receives it. Most Humans Beings born today have karma, for not enough time has passed to create a karma-less Lightworker group that is being reincarnated. In our example, it is later that the child will decide to void his karma or not. [If voided in one lifetime, old core karmic issues do not carry over to the next.]

The set-up of life lessons and the energy of a child's personality is based upon the crystalline Akashic Record and is transferred to the child at birth. You might say, another day begins and the Human continues their overall "story" on Earth. The child begins to grow, and I've spoken of this before. I again say that mothers will agree, because they see that it doesn't matter where a child came from, or who the parents were... the child assumes the Akashic Record and the energy from their own past lives. Mothers know this, for they experience children coming from the same set of parents who are vastly different from each other. One will have talent, one will not. One will have fears, one will not. It only can be explained, dear Human Being, by what I am telling you that is in the DNA. They are resonating to the Akashic Record of their own past. They are coming right from the Cave of Creation where they have their past life's attributes imbued into their DNA, and they start their journeys. Genealogy considered, they may look like the mother and father, and even have some of the personality attributes of their parents, but the core issues of their lives [life lessons] come from their own past lives. Let us discuss what they get when they come in [arrive on Earth].

Fear or non-fear: A Human's "fear quotient" will depend upon what they've learned and what they've gone through in the past. Indeed, if they're old souls, they've fearless about life, for they've walked through the major fears over and over. Some are warriors and very strong. They walk into situations as if they own reality. If they've only been here a few times, less than 30 or 40, they are still afraid. Some come from a fearful lifetime where all they did was fear. There was fear in their death and fear in their life and you can see it in their eyes. They're afraid of life itself. Mothers all over the planet spend much of their time trying to take their children out of fear! They love their children and can't understand why they are so tentative about everything. But the mothers know that they didn't create it. It came from somewhere else.

Desires: Watch the children develop their own personal desires. What do they like regarding food? What do they like regarding music? What do they like to entertain them? What soothes them, or irritates them, or makes them angry? They're all very different and don't necessarily relate to the biological parents. Interesting, is it not, why this would be? Let me tell you a secret: Watch what kind of food they like, for it will tell you where they used to be. Look at this, for it gives away a lot about what the DNA got used to, and again desires.

What music do they like? What soothes their soul? What do they look at? What attracts them? They're all different, but it's shaped by the DNA of the Akash... who they used to be, what they learned, and what the crystalline past gives them. Children love the fads of today. First timers will simply go with the flow and enjoy all the new things, since it's their first trip. Others will start that way, but will soon tire of them and go to the things that are "calling to them from their DNA." This will include their past talents and interests. Many go "retro" immediately, much to the surprise of their elders. In their DNA is the record of all of the past lives that shapes who they are now.

Talent: They either have it or they don't. They can carry a tune or they cannot. Some of them come in filled with talent! Some are artists at birth, only carrying over what the Akash has given them in the immediate past life. In the DNA are lifetimes of drawing, colors, shapes and beautiful music. Some come in as maestros, and by the time they're three or four, it's only a matter of them finding the dexterity in their fingers again to play the keyboard or pluck the strings of a guitar. Some of them are drawn immediately to the instruments that they used to play, and their talent is way beyond what has been taught to them this time around. How do you explain this, Human Being? The Akash shapes it all.

Personality: As the child grows, their personality is shaped seemingly by their environment, but sometimes it's pleasing and sometimes it's not. As a parent, sometimes it seems completely out of your hands, yet you did everything right! You might wonder, "How did my child turn out this way? Why not the way I did? Why do I have to fight in order to get them to understand something like common sense? They really are not like me or my family."

Later, as adults, they may go in ways that you didn't expect... ways you didn't teach them. You will wonder how your child could do something horrible like that. Others will say, "Isn't it beautiful that my child has a perfect consciousness. They think like I do. I was good at what I taught them." Let me tell you the truth, dear Human Being. Your children are often your parents! [from long ago] They come into the karmic group to keep teaching you, and you them. Families incarnate with families in groups of training, especially enlightened training. That is to say, there is a system of enlightenment. Did you expect this? That is to say this, dear Human Being, the reward of your work on this planet - listen to me - the reward of your work on this planet will be etched in the crystalline as the potentials of who is born from the loins of you. Quite often the enlightened child is only picking up what they taught you originally... remembering their own past experiences and their own life lessons. It's easy for you to take credit for it, but it wasn't really you who gave it to them. It's a circle of training child to parent, parent to child.

This means that you, sitting here, will probably populate Lightworkers in this planet, even if they don't believe what you believe. They will be children of light. That is to say, their hearts will resound with the information that you had in your cellular structure. That's what you passed to them. That's part of the system. It's complicated. It's a combination of who they came from, their decisions in the karmic way of who their parents were, who they were and what energies they wish to continue. But I will tell you that the desire and the permission is there in the DNA of both of you. When you get to the other side of the veil, you choose your family for the next expression, and you can come back and you can say, "I want to be in the same family," and continue in the lineage of light. Profound, it is. Difficult, it is. Beautiful, it is.

All grown up... the adult: The growing is over and there stands the adult. Fears, desires, talents or not, personality traits and phobias are all intact. This is common to man. And here's where it gets good: Up to this point, this is what you accept, dear Human Being, as who you are. Automatically, this is who you are and you begin to work with these attributes. You feel they are the "way of it," normal, and that it is like nature... something that just "is" and can't be changed. And the only thing that we say to you is, "How 3D of you!" For that is the only way you think: "This is the deal that has been given to me this time around. It's the hand that has been dealt and I am this." And you begin to walk through life working with whatever "this" is.

The Next Great Ability of the Human Being

For years, the psychologists have been telling you that you could actually change yourself by what you think. Even out of a spiritual context, they say, "The power of positive thinking can actually change your life." They know this. It's about energy, and they are correct. It's also a hint of what's wrong with your thinking. New energy came in 1987. The grid shifted and the crystalline moved. The earth itself vibrates differently today than it did back then. We told you when we arrived, "You have changed your future." We told you about new gifts and now we will describe one of the best ones. It was always there, only now it is enhanced.

Why did you decide that the cells in your body could control you? Why did you decide that the genes that you have biologically were forever? Who told you this? Let me give you an old energy paradigm: "Whoever I am, I am. God created me this way for a reason and so I'll make the best of it. I will do the best I can with what I have been given." Doesn't sound too bad, does it? To some of you, it sounds fine. Now I'm going to say it again: Welcome to an interdimensional shift, for the entire thinking of the Human can be revised to include the new gifts!

"Whatever I was born with doesn't matter. I am in control of my biology, my immune system and my awareness. God created me as a divine creature able to claim the past energies within my Akash... and to totally shift my biology and my countenance and strengths into whatever I desire."

Does this sound impossible? There are profound teachers right now instructing Humans how to "think above the gene."* Medical science is telling you that your DNA is not your destiny!** In other words, this whole idea is occurring to all of humanity, since it is time. Let's discuss the sacred part of it.

Everything you have is changeable right down to the diseases that you currently carry in your blood. It's only the Akash, you know? It's part of your DNA, so it belongs to you. Listen to me: If the storehouse of who you used to be, which is contained in your own DNA, included a beautiful, young, healthy Human Being, it is, therefore, still there! Perhaps it included the ability to do certain kinds of things, being an artist, being the orator, the writer, the warrior, the self-confident one, the one who could stand tall and walk straight? Do you understand that this is all "you?" It's all still there. But, you say, "That's a nice thought, Kryon, but it's in the past. You can't touch the past." I say, how linear of you! For the new gifts are you, in a nonlinear attitude towards cellular structure. Delinearize your life and you will find that not only can you touch these things, you can mine them (extract them from the source). You can glean them easily! "I like the idea, Kryon. How do I do it? I'm ready."

Mining the Akash

I'll give you the first step. You've got to believe it. Don't believe it because I said it's there. You've got to believe it so strongly that it's as real, biologically, as your arm. When you look at your arm, you say, "I have an arm and it is there and I can see it." There's no question, and your brain knows it, too. The matter around you knows it, and to prove it, you can pick up things with it. No question about it. It's your arm.

Now, how do you feel when you say, "I have an Akashic Record in my DNA. I have a record inside me of all that I ever was, which I can access." Tell me what parts of your body object to that statement. I'll answer - all of the linear ones! Logic will yell at you, "You can't do it. You cannot change who you are." And it will be wrong about that.

You can all do this. It is part of being in this new energy and I want to tell you that many already have who are in this room. It can be done slowly and in small increments. It can be done quietly with nobody noticing, and it can be so obvious that your best friends no longer recognize you. The energy for this comes from the storehouse that is you. It's in your DNA, every single piece, trillions of them that all are synchronized to your will.

There are three levels of difficulty: Simple, medium and hard. I will tell you what happens in each one. Do you understand the premise? Do you understand, Human Being, that you're not asking God for anything? What you're doing is changing yourself to the degree where you can go in and get what you have already learned... what you already worked for. The key? You have to understand and believe that the one Higher-Self was with you each time. That means that your central consciousness was involved in all of them. You are not a different entity this time around. You are simply another expression of the same Higher-Self. Therefore, you were there for all of these things we are speaking of. You have to believe it. Does the Higher-Self know what's going on? Do I have to really answer that? The Higher-Self has been waiting for you to bring in the belief.

Easy: Fears. Phobias and blocks. They're easy to clear. Yet these are the ones everyone wants to change and have trouble with. How would you like to not be afraid of the things you're afraid of? We'll talk simply here. Are you afraid of stepping forward, afraid of change, afraid of what's happening around you? Some of you have phobias. That is to say, these are holdovers, hangovers from past life experience. Are you afraid of heights, afraid of insects, water, afraid of this and that? You may say, "Well yes, but it doesn't really affect my life, since I've learned to live with it." Yes, it does! I'll tell you why, because it includes darkness in a study of light. It doesn't belong there. You don't need it. It interrupts your belief, your efficiency, your progress, and you are constantly aware of it. It's not you this time around, since it reflects another lifetime... from somewhere else. You don't need it anymore. It's like trying to be quick to change, but having to carry around a bunch of old baggage that you claim you never need to open and use. Make sense?

So begin. Start to work with what you now believe, in the same way you believe in your arm. Soon you find that the phobias and fears start to retreat and change. As they do, you start to claim that part of the Akashic Record that you used to be, but are rekindling. It feels just like you. It really is you. It doesn't feel like anybody else, for you are just claiming what you already own. The fears start to go away, too. You can feel it, and you can continue to challenge them and work on them so that your cellular structure feels it, too. Afraid of heights? Occasionally go to a high place to check yourself. You'll see how the fear starts to become less. You are no longer paralyzed to look over the edge. These things start to go away to the point you will wonder why they were ever there! These are small challenges. The blockages from you moving from one energy to another are real, but they will subside as you claim the power of what belongs to you... lack of fear. It's growth, and it takes practice. But you will absolutely see the progress.

Humans don't like to change. Many of you have these blocks. They are blocks of awareness. What is it that triggers your anger? It's a block of peace, isn't it? Can you eventually be patient while a fool speaks to you about his foolishness? Can you be understanding about his process instead of angry? Yes. These are the simple things. You can pass these tests, change your life, and then start to work on the more complex issues. The beauty of it, dear Human Being, is that if all of you did the simple things, you'd have a group of peaceful warriors... warriors of the light. You all would be unencumbered by fear, phobias and blocks. You would all send the light with purity, and there would be no judgment from Spirit if you did nothing else. But if you wish to, they get harder.
Medium: How would you like to get rid of your allergies and change your immune system? It's a little harder. You might ask, "Well, how do you do such a thing? Do you just think it away? I either have allergies or I don't. My cells are allergic." Oh, really? I'll tell you, dear ones, there are those in this room who have dropped their allergies because they realized they were holdovers for something they didn't need anymore. They went into the Akashic Record and they got the pristine DNA from the one lifetime that was never allergic to anything! That blueprint is still there! It represented an immune system that was hardy and whole and never had disease. They were strong and never allergic to anything. How would you like to not have sickness? How would you like to have strength and energy beyond your years? This is harder, you know? But it is so. Whatever you think you are can be re-written at the cellular level.

How would you like to have peace over everything in your life, no matter what? I didn't say the problems would go away. I just asked how it would be to be peaceful about them? How would you like to get rid of the drama and the worry? It's an interesting thing about drama issues: When the Lightworker does not work karmic energy, drama disappears! When you drop your karma, there is no reason to continue the drama about something you don't need anymore. "Kryon, I dropped my karma years ago when I decided to change my path. This sounds like it's still there." It's not that simple. Giving intent to drop your karma is like clearing the path before you. But now you have to get up and walk that path. The karmic attributes shout at you: "Pick me up... I'm yours!" But then you remember as you walk that your intent has created a situation where you never have to pick them up. But they will always be around, talking to you.

This is difficult. Let me tell you, old soul, anyone who sits in this room, or any Lightworker reading this, has been through a spiritual revelation. You have been priests, you've been nuns, you've been shamans. You've gone through these things or you wouldn't sit in the chair or be reading this esoteric information. In these medium Akashic attributes, you might say, you can develop a personality that is so peaceful that everybody wants to be with you. That is the answer, is it not? This is the peace that the masters had. This is only the medium part, so I've just given you the starting point. I've given you the simple. I've given you the medium. Now I tell you the hard one.

Hard: This is the unbelievable part. This is for the one who really wants to dig into the Akash and change the future. In each of you is all that you ever were... eons of experience. In addition, if you're going to mine the Akash, that is to say, if you're going to go in and get these things, you will be voiding the things that you don't like about this life. That is the result. It's not that you're going into the DNA and getting something different to paste upon you. Actually, it's an exchange - one for another. That's the way it works. For the DNA claims everything you are. What you are doing is exchanging attributes... putting into the record what doesn't suit your energy, and claiming the things that do. You own them all.

There is something else: Each of you has what we would call a spiritual jar. That jar is filled with everything you have ever learned as a Human Being on this earth about God, about guides, about angels, about interactions, about sacred communication. And the jar is yours. It does not have to be refilled every lifetime. It lays there ready for you to unscrew the lid and pour out everything you ever knew. It is part of the system of the spiritual Akash. It is the spiritual gilding of all that is, allowing a seeming novice on this planet to become a master overnight. This "novice" paid his dues and lived through it. Perhaps he even died for his belief.

Many of you are afraid of certain things because you died as a result. Some of you don't want to touch the esoteric because it carries a fear of enlightenment and death. Your fear is such that you don't want to open the jar. So many will reject this entire premise, not believing. Well, not really. You believe, but you just don't want to touch it again. I know who's here. So the first attribute in the hard category is opening the spiritual jar and placing upon you all that ever was learned by you. Are you afraid of this? For some of you were important in the history of spiritual things. That's the truth.

Not only do you carry spiritual knowledge, you carry the persona of who you used to be... in the jar. This is difficult to explain to you. Overnight, seemingly, one who is not interested at all in metaphysical things may become a giant teacher. Out pours the jar and all they have to do is learn and listen to use the information in a linear fashion. Non-teachers become teachers. Those who had no knowledge at all, now have great knowledge. Those who were clueless have great wisdom. The spiritual jar - that's the hard one. It's there; all of you have it. Everyone in this room and reading this are included.

You can assume a personality that is completely and totally different than the one you were born with. Are you ready for that? Are you too attached to the fears, phobias and blocks? Would you like to have a more peaceful personality? That is a fear in itself, is it not? You might feel you are losing yourself, only to find yourself! It's available in this "hard" category. These are the things that can be given with clarity through connection with the Higher-Self. Growth in these things requires a greater communicative ability from the Human Being to the Higher-Self. Each step gets you more connected.

"Wait a minute, Kryon. You said we were connecting to our DNA, not the Higher-Self." Yes, I did. Where do you think the Higher-Self is? It's in the interdimensional DNA. We even gave you the information of which DNA layer contains it, and the Hebrew name for it. We even told you its number was six: the sixth energy of DNA. That core information, that Higher-Self, lurks in trillions of pieces of the DNA all working together to create who you are. Oh, you want to think your Higher-Self is some angel in the sky? It is not. It's inside you, imbedded in your cellular structure. That's where it is. There's so much here to know.

"Kryon, I'm confused. Where is God in all of this?" Right where you would never look, for God is the concept of a loving family of spiritual help that is somewhere beyond the veil. God is love, yet you can't really find that fullness outside of you. It is a constant search and humanity has been looking for God since creation. Now I again reveal to you that the system of God is inside you, and that the very essence of your divinity lies in the interdimensional DNA that is within your own body. Be still, and know that you are God. Let the search stop and celebrate victory in finding the truth in the most unlikely place... inside.

We're almost done. How would you like to have talents that you do not have now? "Kryon, how can that be? I'm either talented or I'm not. I either play the piano or I don't." How 3D of you! There you go, deciding that it's finished. You feel like you are some kind of cake, and when you come out of the oven, you're finished! You don't understand that you are just the beginning recipe, and that recipe shouts to be altered. In your Akash, that is to say, in your DNA, is the remembrance of talent that you don't think you have, but which you did have. This is again called mining the Akash. We've spoken of it before. It takes years. It's doable. It can happen, and it can be awakened. What are you afraid of? Why not begin?

You say, "Well, I cannot speak in front of people. I'm not good at that." What about the orator in the third century? Are you going to throw him away? After all, he was you! Would you like to go in and get those attributes? The orator will speak with authority and people will listen. That's a talent. Many of you have this within you, yet didn't when you were born. Therefore, you can't imagine such a thing. You can't live that many lives without having this talent. I'll say it again: There's such a variety of what you have in your own history that you can pull upon it, dear Human Being. It's yours to develop. Too strange? Ask my partner some day about it. He did it.

The hardest one: How would you like to change your DNA to such a degree that the disease that surges through it now won't even remember it was ever there? Go in and get the clean DNA that you had before the disease ever arrived! The DNA remembers what it was like. It was participating, remember? Begin to change your own DNA in an interdimensional fashion so that the disease will retreat, go away, and never come back. "Sounds like a miracle, Kryon!" Indeed, it is... the miracle of shift into mastery.

Miracles are only things that are outside of your normal belief. Change your belief and they become ordinary. Sometimes when these miraculous things occur, Humans lift their hands to God and say, "Thank you, God!" There is no understanding that they have activated their own DNA to such a power that they received what only the masters could give in the past. They simply exchanged what was theirs to exchange, in a nonlinear way. They healed their own life. What was only thought of as available from the masters is now available to all. This is the enablement of the Human race. Less than one half of one percent will ever do it. But you are part of that group, and you know it.

We would not tell you these things unless they were so, unless they were accurate. We have only opened the door to a teaching that should be expanded.

There is a system here. It's a system where the energy of family stays with family and you don't even know it. There are those here in mourning for those they've lost, yet they've not lost them at all. In linearity, you don't understand the love of God or the system that is here for your benefit, for your enhancement. These who you have lost will hold your hand the rest of your life. Don't you see? It has to be that way. It's your solace. It's where your peace comes from. It's designed to help you through life. It's family!

There is much hiding here, and the system provides for you to begin to access the Akash. Push on the door. Take the hand of your Higher-Self and never look back. That's the invitation, old soul. That's the invitation.

Blessed are the Humans who hear and read this.

And so it is.

KRYON

Saturday, December 6, 2008

POSSIBILITIES


The Universe has an exceptional way of placing opportunities in our path. I believe everything happens for a reason, including the fact that you're reading this right now.

All of us have capability to realize our dreams come true. BELEIVE and AWARENESS are the keys to open the doors.

- To have anger is good if you aware the real reason. Look at the face an angry person. You will see a beautiful face with red chcks and blury eyes, if awares the reason of own anger.

- To live with emotions is good if you aware that they are make you passionate and willing.

- To be in love is good, it makes you valuable and unique. Then you can feel The power of Universe inside of you

- To have dreams is good. They will inspire you to live fulfill.

- To have hopes is good. They will show you the way to achive

- To have questions is good. They give you curiage to seek better and make you aware to find the right answers.

- To beleive is good. It is the only way to be a person.

Thursday, December 4, 2008





Istanbul (Not Constantinople)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Istanbul (Not Constantinople)" is a swing-style song, with lyrics by Jimmy Kennedy and music by Nat Simon. The tune is similar to and possibly based on the music for "Puttin' on the Ritz", written by Irving Berlin in 1929. [1]

It was originally recorded by The Four Lads on August 12, 1953. This recording was released by Columbia Records as catalog number 40082. It first reached the Billboard magazine charts on October 24, 1953, and it peaked at #10. [2]

The lyrics remind the listener of the change of the name of the city Constantinople to the Turkish name of Istanbul, also mentioning the fact that New York City was originally named New Amsterdam.

Monday, December 1, 2008

December 1st, 2008 - Istanbul, 17:50



Moon and Venus togetherness from Istanbul sky (www.milliyet.com.tr) This phenomen is appearing once in every hundred years. Imagine next observation will be in 2108... Who knows, who and how will observe this in next appearance.

Friday, November 28, 2008

relativity

distance?? who says ;)

Thursday, November 27, 2008

My paintings



Channel Houses of my dream country

Tuesday, November 25, 2008

kakadu


Birthday Celebrations




Birthday Song

The Happy Birthday song is more than one hundred years old. It was written in 1893 by two sisters, Patty and Mildred Hill, who were schoolteachers in Louisville, Kentucky. The tune was originally a morning greeting to their students entitled "Good Morning To All." The lyrics were copyrighted in 1935, 11 years before Patty's death, and the ownership has swapped hands in multi-million dollar deals ever since. The current copyright is owned by Warner Communications. They purchased it in 1989 for more than $22 million dollars.
Happy Birthday is recognized around the world and has been translated into dozens of languages. It is one of the three most popular songs in the English language.

Birthday Parties and Celebrations


The earliest birthday parties were held because people believed evil spirits were particuarly attracted to people on their birthdays.
At first it was only kings who were recognized as important enough to have a birthday celebration. To protect them from harm, friends and family would to come be with the birthday person and bring good thoughts and wishes.

Giving gifts brought even more good cheer to ward off the evil spirits. As time went by, children became included in birthday celebrations. The tradition of children's birthday parties first started in Germany, Kinderfeste.

The largest private birthday party to ever happen was in 1970 for Colonel Harlan Sanders' 89th birthday. The event was attended by over 35,000 people.



Birthday Cakes


One theory about the origin of the birthday cake is that it originated with the Greeks, who baked round cakes representing the full moon for their moon goddess, Artemis. They placed candles on the cake to make it glow, like the moon.
The Germans are also credited with the first cakes and candles. They used a sweet, layered cake and they put a large candle in the center of the cake to represent "the light of life." Some people believe the smoke from extinguished candles carries their birthday wishes up to heaven.



http://www.birthdaycelebrations.net 45

Sunday, November 23, 2008

First snow of season in Southern Holland


Published Date: 23 November 2008
Thick snow fell overnight as South Holland was gripped by freezing temperatures.

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Rianna - Umbrella, for true friends

.... And that is when you need me there
With you I’ll always share
Because

When the sun shines, we’ll shine together
Told you I’ll be here forever
Said I’ll always be a friend
Took an oath, I’ma stick it out till the end

Now that it’s raining more than ever
Know that we’ll still have each other
You can stand under my umbrella
You can stand under my umbrella.....

www.jango.com/music/rihannal?0.html

Friday, November 21, 2008

Republic of Turkey by Wikipedia

Etymology
Main article: Names of Turkey
The name of Turkey, Türkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means "Strong" in Old Turkic and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[11] a later form of "Tu–kin", a name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BCE;[12] and the abstract suffix –iye (derived from the Arabic suffix –iyya, but also associated with the Medieval Latin suffix –ia in Turchia, and the Medieval Greek suffix –ία in Τουρκία), which means "owner" or "related to". The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Sky Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin "Turchia" (c. 1369).[12]

Republic era
Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and Atatürk's reforms

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Republic of TurkeyThe occupation of İstanbul and İzmir by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.[6] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.[5] By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were repelled and the country saw the birth of the new Turkish state. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.[6]

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first president and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[6] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.[5]

Turkey entered World War II on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945 as a ceremonial gesture and became a charter member of the United Nations in 1945.[22] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale US military and economic support.[23]

After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the Greek military coup of July 1974, overthrowing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey intervened militarily in 1974. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. The TRNC is recognised only by Turkey.[24]

Following the end of the single-party period in 1945, the multi-party period witnessed tensions over the following decades, and the period between the 1960s and the 1980s was particularly marked by periods of political instability that resulted in a number of military coups d'états in 1960, 1971, 1980 and a post-modern coup d'état in 1997.[25] The liberalization of the Turkish economy that started in the 1980s changed the landscape of the country, with successive periods of high growth and crises punctuating the following decades.[26]

Economy
Main articles: Economy of Turkey and Economic history of Turkey

Levent financial district in IstanbulTurkey is a founding member of the OECD and the G-20 major economies.

For most of its republican history, Turkey has adhered to a quasi-statist approach, with strict government controls over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, during the 1980s, Turkey began a series of reforms, initiated by Prime Minister Turgut Özal and designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.[26] The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[66] and 2001,[67] resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[68] Lack of additional reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.[69]

Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Derviş, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen. The IMF forecasts a 6% inflation rate for Turkey in 2008.[70] Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.[71]


TCDD high speed trainThe GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 7.4%,[72][73] which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period. The World Bank forecasts a 5.4% GDP growth rate for Turkey in 2008.[74] Turkey's economy is no longer dominated by traditional agricultural activities in the rural areas, but more so by a highly dynamic industrial complex in the major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, along with a developed services sector. In 2007, the agricultural sector accounted for 8.9% of the GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 30.8% and the services sector accounted for 59.3%.[75]

The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2007, there were 27,214,988 visitors to the country, who contributed 18.5 billion USD to Turkey's revenues.[76]


Etox is a Turkish sports car brand, based in AnkaraOther key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, machine industry and automotive. Turkey has a large and growing automotive industry, which produced 1,024,987 motor vehicles in 2006,[77] ranking as the 6th largest automotive producer in Europe in that year; behind Germany (5,819,614), France (3,174,260), Spain (2,770,435), the United Kingdom (1,648,388), and Italy (1,211,594), respectively.[78] Turkey is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations; in 2007 the country ranked 4th in the world (behind China, South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships, and also 4th in the world (behind Italy, USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts.[79]

In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency, the New Turkish Lira, on January 1, 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.[80] On January 1, 2009, the New Turkish Lira will be renamed once again as the Turkish Lira, with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. As a result of continuing economic reforms, inflation has dropped to 8.2% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10.3%.[81] In 2004, it was estimated that 46.2% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% income earners, while the lowest 20% received 6%.[82]


Esenboğa International Airport in AnkaraTurkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.[83] In 2005, exports amounted to 73.5 billion USD while the imports stood at 116.8 billion USD, with increases of 16.3% and 19.7% compared to 2004, respectively.[84] For 2006, the exports amounted to 85.8 billion USD, representing an increase of 16,8% over 2005.[85] In 2007 the exports reached 115.3 billion USD[86] (main export partners: Germany 11.2%, UK 8%, Italy 6.95%, France 5.6%, Spain 4.3%, USA 3.88%; total EU exports 56.5%.) However, larger imports amounting to about 162.1 billion USD[87] threaten the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 13.8%, Germany 10.3%, China 7.8%, Italy 6%, USA 4.8%, France 4.6%, Iran 3.9%, UK 3.2%; total EU imports 40.4%; total Asia imports 27%).[88][89]

After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting 21.9 billion USD in FDI in 2007 and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years.[90] A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[71]

Ottoman Empire by Wikipedia


Rise (1299–1453)
Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire
With the demise of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rūm (circa 1300), Turkish Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-called Ghazi emirates. By 1300, a weakened Byzantine Empire had seen most of its Anatolian provinces lost to ten Ghazi principalities. One of the Ghazi emirates was led by Osman I (from which the name Ottoman is derived), son of Ertuğrul in the region of Eskişehir in western Anatolia. Osman I extended the frontiers of Ottoman settlement towards the edge of the Byzantine Empire. He moved the Ottoman capital to Bursa, and shaped the early political development of the nation. Given the nickname "Kara" (Turkish for black) for his courage,[5] Osman I was admired as a strong and dynamic ruler long after his death, as evident in the centuries-old Turkish phrase, "May he be as good as Osman." His reputation has also been burnished by the medieval Turkish story known as "Osman's Dream", a foundation myth in which the young Osman was inspired to conquest by a prescient vision of empire. In this period, a formal Ottoman government was created whose institutions would change drastically over the life of the empire. The government used the legal entity known as the millet, under which religious and ethnic minorities were able to manage their own affairs with substantial independence from central control.

In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, and the Turkish victory at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe. The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottomans. With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategic conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective. The Empire controlled nearly all of the former Byzantine lands surrounding the city, but the Byzantines were temporarily relieved when Tamerlane invaded Anatolia with the Battle of Ankara in 1402, taking Sultan Bayezid I as a prisoner. Part of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans (such as Thessaloniki, Macedonia and Kosovo) were temporarily lost after 1402, but were later recovered by Murad II between the 1430s and 1450s.

The capture of Bayezid I threw the Turks into disorder. The state fell into a civil war which lasted from 1402 to 1413, as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. It ended when Mehmed I emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power, bringing an end to the Interregnum. His grandson, Mehmed the Conqueror, reorganized the state and the military, and demonstrated his martial prowess by capturing Constantinople on May 29, 1453, at the age of 21. The city became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire, and Mehmed II assumed the title of Kayser-i Rûm (Roman Emperor). However, this title was not recognized by the Greeks or Western Europe, and the Russian Czars also claimed to be the successors of the Eastern Imperial title. To consolidate his claim, Mehmed II aspired to gain control over the Western capital, Rome, and Ottoman forces occupied parts of the Italian peninsula, starting from Otranto and Apulia on July 28, 1480. But after Mehmed II's death on May 3, 1481, the campaign in Italy was cancelled and the Ottoman forces retreated.


[edit] Growth (1453–1683)
Main article: Growth of the Ottoman Empire
This period in Ottoman history can roughly be divided into two distinct eras: an era of territorial, economic, and cultural growth prior to 1566, followed by an era of relative military and political stagnation.


[edit] Expansion and apogee (1453–1566)

Mehmed II enters Constantinople with his army by Jean-Joseph Benjamin-ConstantThe Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 cemented the status of the Empire as the preeminent power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. During this time, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion, extending its borders deep into Europe and North Africa. Conquests on land were driven by the discipline and innovation of the Ottoman military; and on the sea, the Ottoman navy aided this expansion significantly. The navy also contested and protected key seagoing trade routes, in competition with the Italian city states in the Black Sea, Aegean and Mediterranean seas and the Portuguese in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. The state also flourished economically thanks to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia. This lock-hold on trade between western Europe and Asia is frequently cited as a primary motivational factor for the Queen of Spain to fund Christopher Columbus's westward journey to find a sailing route to Asia. The world had been speculated to be round for generations before 1492, but Columbus's expedition was the first real effort to short-circuit the dangerous land-locked journey through the Muslim-controlled Ottoman Empire to trade with Asia. The resulting dominance of Europe in the new world and the riches it brought were almost directly due to the Ottoman Empire's heavy taxation on Christians and Jews in their territory.

The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective sultans. Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating Shah Ismail of Safavid Persia, in the Battle of Chaldiran.[6] Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt, and created a naval presence on the Red Sea. After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region.[7]


Battle of Mohács (1526) and the Ottoman conquest of HungarySelim's successor, Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), further expanded upon Selim's conquests. After capturing Belgrade in 1521, Suleiman conquered the Kingdom of Hungary and established Ottoman rule in the territory of present-day Hungary and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. He then laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city after the onset of winter forced his retreat.[8] In 1532, another planned attack on Vienna with an army thought to be over 250,000 strong was repulsed 60 miles (97 km) south of Vienna, at the fortress of Güns. After further advances by the Ottomans in 1543, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognised Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547. During the reign of Suleiman, Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. In the east, the Ottomans took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535, gaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf. By the end of Suleiman's reign, the Empire's population reached about 15,000,000 people.[9]


Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538Under Selim and Suleiman, the Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean Sea.[10] The exploits of the Ottoman admiral Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, who commanded the Ottoman Navy during Suleiman's reign, led to a number of military victories over Christian navies. Among these were the conquest of Tunis and Algeria from Spain; the evacuation of Muslims from Spain to the safety of Ottoman lands (particularly Salonica, Cyprus, and Constantinople) during the Spanish Inquisition; and the capture of Nice from the Holy Roman Empire in 1543. This last conquest occurred on behalf of France as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I and those of Barbarossa.[11] France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule in both Southern Europe and Central Europe, became strong allies during this period. The alliance was economic and military, as the sultans granted France the right of trade within the Empire without levy of taxation. In fact, the Ottoman Empire was by this time a significant and accepted part of the European political sphere, and entered into a military alliance with France, the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic against Habsburg Spain, Italy and Habsburg Austria.

As the 16th century progressed, Ottoman naval superiority was challenged by the growing sea powers of western Europe, particularly Portugal, in the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean and the Spice Islands. With the Ottomans blockading sea-lanes to the East and South, the European powers were driven to find another way to the ancient silk and spice routes, now under Ottoman control. On land, the Empire was preoccupied by military campaigns in Austria and Persia, two widely separated theatres of war. The strain of these conflicts on the Empire's resources, and the logistics of maintaining lines of supply and communication across such vast distances, ultimately rendered its sea efforts unsustainable and unsuccessful. The overriding military need for defence on the western and eastern frontiers of the Empire eventually made effective long-term engagement on a global scale impossible.


[edit] Revolts and revival (1566–1683)
Suleiman's death in 1566 marked the beginning of an era of diminishing territorial gains. The rise of western European nations as naval powers and the development of alternative sea routes from Europe to Asia and the New World damaged the Ottoman economy. The effective military and bureaucratic structures of the previous century also came under strain during a protracted period of misrule by weak Sultans. But in spite of these difficulties, the Empire remained a major expansionist power until the Battle of Vienna in 1683, which marked the end of Ottoman expansion into Europe.

European states initiated efforts at this time to curb Ottoman control of overland trade routes. Western European states began to circumvent the Ottoman trade monopoly by establishing their own naval routes to Asia. Economically, the huge influx of Spanish silver from the New World caused a sharp devaluation of the Ottoman currency and rampant inflation. This had serious negative consequences at all levels of Ottoman society. Sokullu Mehmet Pasha, who was the grand vizier of Selim II, began the projects of Suez Channel and Don-Volga Channel to save the economy but these were later cancelled.


Battle of Lepanto in 1571In southern Europe, a coalition of Catholic powers, led by Philip II of Spain, formed an alliance to challenge Ottoman naval strength in the Mediterranean Sea. Their victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto (1571) was a startling blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility. However, historians today stress the symbolic rather than the strictly military significance of the battle, for within six months of the defeat a new Ottoman fleet of some 250 sail including eight modern galleasses[12] had been built, with the harbours of Constantinople turning out a new ship every day at the height of the construction. In discussions with a Venetian minister, the Turkish Grand Vizier commented: "In capturing Cyprus from you, we have cut off one of your arms; in defeating our fleet you have merely shaved off our beard".[13] The Ottoman naval recovery persuaded Venice to sign a peace treaty in 1573, and the Ottomans were able to expand and consolidate their position in North Africa.[14]


Second Siege of Vienna in 1683By contrast, the Habsburg frontier had settled into a more or less permanent border, marked only by relatively minor battles concentrating on the possession of individual fortresses. This stalemate was mostly caused by the European development of the trace italienne, low bastioned fortifications built by Austria along the border that were almost impossible to capture without lengthy sieges. The Ottomans had no answer to these new-style fortifications that rendered the artillery they previously used so effectively (as in the Siege of Constantinople) almost useless. The stalemate was also a reflection of simple geographical limits: in the pre-mechanized age, Vienna marked the furthest point that an Ottoman army could march from Constantinople during the early-spring to late-autumn campaigning season. It also reflected the difficulties imposed on the Empire by the need to maintain two separate fronts: one against the Austrians (see: Ottoman wars in Europe), and the other against a rival Islamic state, the Safavids of Persia (see: Ottoman wars in Near East).

On the battlefield, the Ottomans gradually fell behind the Europeans in military technology as the innovation which fed the Empire's forceful expansion became stifled by growing religious and intellectual conservatism. Changes in European military tactics and weaponry in the military revolution caused the once-feared Sipahi cavalry to lose military relevance. The 'Long War' against Habsburg Austria (1593-1606) created the need for greater numbers of infantry equipped with firearms. This resulted in a relaxation of recruitment policy and a significant growth in Janissary corps numbers. This contributed to problems of indiscipline, effectiveness and outright rebelliousness within the corps which the government wrestled with but never fully solved during (and beyond) this whole period. The development of pike and shot and later linear tactics with increased use of firearms by Europeans proved deadly against the massed infantry in close formation used by the Ottomans. Irregular sharpshooters (Sekban) were also recruited for the same reasons and on demobilisation turned to brigandage in the Jelali revolts (1595–1610) which engendered widespread anarchy in Anatolia in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.[15]With the Empire's population reaching 30,000,000 people by 1600, shortage of land placed further pressure on the government.[16]

However, the 17th century was not simply an era of stagnation and decline, but also a key period in which the Ottoman state and its structures began to adapt to new pressures and new realities, internal and external.

The Sultanate of women (1648–1656) was a period in which the political influence of the Imperial Harem was dominant, as the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. This was not wholly unprecedented; Hürrem Sultan, who established herself in the early 1530s as the successor of Nurbanu, the first Valide Sultan, was described by the Venetian Baylo Andrea Giritti as 'a woman of the utmost goodness, courage and wisdom' despite the fact that she 'thwarted some while rewarding others'.[17] But the inadequacy of Ibrahim I (1640-1648) and the minority accession of Mohammed IV in 1646 created a significant crisis of rule which the dominant women of the Imperial Harem filled [18]. The most prominent women of this period were Kösem Sultan and her daughter-in-law Turhan Hatice, whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651.

This period gave way to the highly significant Köprülü Era (1656–1703), during which effective control of the Empire was exercised by a sequence of Grand Viziers from the Köprülü family. On September 15, 1656 the octogenarian Köprülü Mehmed Pasha accepted the seals of office having received guarantees from the Valide Turhan Hatice of unprecedented authority and freedom from interference. A fierce conservative disciplinarian, he successfully reasserted the central authority and the empire's military impetus. This continued under his son and successor Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed (Grand Vizier 1661 - 1676).[19]. The Köprülü Vizierate saw renewed military success with authority restored in Transylvania, the conquest of Crete completed in 1669 and expansion into Polish southern Ukraine, with the strongholds of Khotin and Kamianets-Podilskyi and the territory of Podolia ceding to Ottoman control in 1676.[20]

This period of renewed assertiveness came to a calamitous end when Grand Vizier Kara Mustapha Pasha in May 1683 led a huge army to attempt a second Ottoman siege of Vienna. The final assault being fatally delayed, the Ottoman forces were swept away by allied Habsburg, German and Polish forces spearheaded by the Polish king Jan Sobieski.[21] at the Battle of Vienna.

The alliance of the Holy League pressed home the advantage of the defeat at Vienna and 15 years of see-sawing warfare culminated in the epochal Treaty of Karlowitz (January 26, 1699) which for the first time saw the Ottoman Empire surrender control of significant European territories (many permanently).[22] The Empire had reached the end of its ability to effectively conduct an assertive, expansionist policy against its European rivals and it was to be forced from this point to adopt an essentially defensive strategy within this theatre.

Only two Sultans in this period personally exercised strong political and military control of the Empire: the vigorous Murad IV (1612–1640) recaptured Yerevan (1635) and Baghdad (1639) from the Safavids and reasserted central authority, albeit during a brief majority reign[23]. Mustafa II (1695-1703) led the Ottoman counter attack of 1695-6 against the Habsburgs in Hungary, but was undone at the disastrous defeat at Zenta (September 11, 1697)[24].


[edit] Stagnation and reform (1699–1827)
Main article: Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
During the stagnation period much territory in the Balkans was ceded to Austria. Certain areas of the Empire, such as Egypt and Algeria, became independent in all but name, and subsequently came under the influence of Britain and France. In the 18th century, centralized authority gave way to varying degrees of provincial autonomy enjoyed by local governors and leaders. A series of wars were fought between the Russian and Ottoman empires from the 17th to the 19th century.

The long period of Ottoman stagnation is typically characterized by historians as an era of failed reforms. In the latter part of this period there were educational and technological reforms, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as Istanbul Technical University; Ottoman science and technology had been highly regarded in medieval times, as a result of Ottoman scholars' synthesis of classical learning with Islamic philosophy and mathematics, and knowledge of such Chinese advances in technology as gunpowder and the magnetic compass. By this period though the influences had become regressive and conservative. The guilds of writers denounced the printing press as "the Devil's Invention", and were responsible for a 43-year lag between its invention by Johannes Gutenberg in Europe in 1450 and its introduction to the Ottoman society with the Gutenberg press in Constantinople that was established by the Sephardic Jews of Spain in 1493. Sephardic Jews migrated to the Ottoman Empire as they escaped from the Spanish Inquisition of 1492.

The Tulip Era (or Lâle Devri in Turkish), named for Sultan Ahmed III's love of the tulip flower and its use to symbolize his peaceful reign, the Empire's policy towards Europe underwent a shift. The region was peaceful between 1718 and 1730, after the Ottoman victory against Russia in the Pruth Campaign in 1712 and the subsequent Treaty of Passarowitz brought a period of pause in warfare. The Empire began to improve the fortifications of cities bordering the Balkans to act as a defence against European expansionism. Other tentative reforms were also enacted: taxes were lowered; there were attempts to improve the image of the Ottoman state; and the first instances of private investment and entrepreneurship occurred.

Ottoman military reform efforts begin with Selim III (1789–1807) who made the first major attempts to modernize the army along European lines. These efforts, however, were hampered by reactionary movements, partly from the religious leadership, but primarily from the Janissary corps, who had become anarchic and ineffectual. Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, they created a Janissary revolt. Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who massacred the Janissary corps in 1826.


[edit] Decline and modernization (1828–1908)
Main article: Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman decline (loss of huge territories) is typically characterized by historians also as an era of modern times. The Empire lost territory on all fronts, and there was administrative instability because of the breakdown of centralized government, despite efforts of reform and reorganization such as the Tanzimat. During this period, the Empire faced challenges in defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation. The Empire ceased to enter conflicts on its own and began to forge alliances with European countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Russia. As an example, in the Crimean War the Ottomans united with the British, French, and others against Russia.


Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey by preparing the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 which had immediate effects such as European style clothing, uniforms, weapons, agricultural and industrial innovations, architecture, education, legislation, institutional organization and land reform.During the Tanzimat period (from Arabic Tanzîmât, meaning "reorganization") (1839–1876), a series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, and the replacement of guilds with modern factories. In 1856, the Hatt-ı Hümayun promised equality for all Ottoman citizens irrespective of their ethnicity and confession, widening the scope of the 1839 Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane. The Christian millets gained privileges; such as in 1863 the Armenian National Constitution (Ottoman Turkish:"Nizâmnâme-i Millet-i Ermeniyân") was Divan approved form of the "Code of Regulations" composed of 150 articles drafted by the "Armenian intelligentsia", and newly formed "Armenian National Assembly".[25] The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning "Basic Law" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, which was promulgated on November 23, 1876. It established freedom of belief and equality of all citizens before the law.


Punch cartoon from June 17, 1876. Russian Empire preparing to let slip the Balkan "Dogs of War" to attack the Ottoman Empire, while policeman John Bull (UK) warns Russia to take care. Supported by Russia, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire one day later.The Empire's First Constitutional era (or Birinci Meşrûtiyet Devri in Turkish), was short-lived; however, the idea behind it (Ottomanism), proved influential as a wide-ranging group of reformers known as the Young Ottomans, primarily educated in Western universities, believed that a constitutional monarchy would provide an answer to the Empire's growing social unrest. Through a military coup in 1876, they forced Sultan Abdülaziz (1861–1876) to abdicate in favour of Murad V. However, Murad V was mentally ill, and was deposed within a few months. His heir-apparent Abdülhamid II (1876-1909) was invited to assume power on the condition that he would declare a constitutional monarchy, which he did on November 23, 1876. However, the parliament survived for only two years. The sultan suspended, but did not abolish, the parliament until he was forced to reconvene it. The effectiveness of Kanûn-ı Esâsî was then largely minimized.

The rise of nationalism swept through many countries during the 19th century, and the Ottoman Empire was not immune. A burgeoning national consciousness, together with a growing sense of ethnic nationalism, made nationalistic thought one of the most significant Western ideas imported to the Ottoman empire, as it was forced to deal with nationalism both within and beyond its borders. There was a significant increase in the number of revolutionary political parties. Uprisings in Ottoman territory had many far-reaching consequences during the 19th century and determined much of Ottoman policy during the early 20th century. Many Ottoman Turks questioned whether the policies of the state were to blame: some felt that the sources of ethnic conflict were external, and unrelated to issues of governance. While this era was not without some successes, the ability of the Ottoman state to have any effect on ethnic uprisings was seriously called into question. Greece declared its independence from the Empire in 1829 after the end of the Greek War of Independence. Reforms did not halt the rise of nationalism in the Danubian Principalities and Serbia, which had been semi-independent for almost six decades; in 1875 the tributary principalities of Serbia, Montenegro, Wallachia and Moldavia declared their independence from the Empire; and following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, independence was formally granted to Serbia, Romania and Montenegro, and autonomy to Bulgaria; Bosnia was occupied by the Austrian Empire, with the other Balkan territories remaining under Ottoman control. A Serbian Jew, Judah Alkalai, encouraged a return to Zion and independence for Israel during this wave of decolonization. Following defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, Cyprus was lent to the British in 1878 in exchange for Britain's favors at the Congress of Berlin. Egypt, which had previously been occupied by the forces of Napoleon I of France in 1798 but recovered in 1801 by a joint Ottoman-British force, was occupied in 1882 by British forces on the pretext of bringing order; though Egypt and Sudan remained Ottoman provinces de jure until 1914, when the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers of World War I, and Britain officially annexed these two provinces as a response. Other Ottoman provinces in North Africa were lost between 1830 and 1912, starting from Algeria (occupied by France in 1830), Tunisia (occupied by France in 1881) and Libya (occupied by Italy in 1912.)

Economically, the Empire had difficulty in repaying the Ottoman public debt to European banks, which caused the establishment of the Council of Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt. By the end of the 19th century, the main reason the Empire was not entirely overrun by Western powers came from the Balance of Power doctrine. Both Austria and Russia wanted to increase their spheres of influence and territory at the expense of the Ottoman Empire, but were kept in check mostly by the United Kingdom, which feared Russian dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean. Over the centuries, the ottoman empire grew weak. It fought wars constantly to hold on to it's empire. By the 1800's, the empire came close to bankruptcy several times. It also had trouble competing in trade with industrialized Europe.


[edit] Dissolution (1908–1922)
Main article: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908The Second Constitutional Era (Turkish: İkinci Meşrûtiyet Devri'') established after the Young Turk Revolution (July 3, 1908) with the sultan's announcement of the restoration of the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of the Ottoman Parliament marks the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. This era is dominated by the politics of the Committee of Union and Progress (Turkish: İttihâd ve Terakkî Cemiyeti), and the movement that would become known as the Young Turks (Turkish: Jön Türkler). Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. During the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912), the Balkan League declared war against the Ottoman Empire, which lost its Balkan territories except Thrace and the historic Ottoman capital city of Edirne (Adrianople) with the Balkan Wars (1912–1913). The Baghdad Railway under German control became a source of international tension and played a role in the origins of World War I.[26] The Ottoman Empire entered the First World War after the pursuit of Goeben and Breslau and took part in the Middle Eastern theatre on the side of the Central Powers. There were several important victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut; but there were setbacks as well, such as the disastrous Caucasus Campaign against the Russians. The Arab Revolt which began in 1916 turned the tide against the Ottomans at the Middle Eastern front, where they initially seemed to have had the upper hand.


Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) at the trenches of Gallipoli (1915)The interior minister of the period, Talat Pasha, expressing the fear that the ethnic Armenians of the Empire would form a Fifth Column, ordered the arrest of Armenian leaders with a circular on April 24, 1915 and sent a request for the Tehcir Law on May 29, 1915, which initiated large scale deportations and massacres of the Armenians. In response was the creation of an Armenian resistance (April 1915) movement in the province of Van and the establishment of an Armenian Administration. The Ottoman government had accused the Armenians of being in collaboration with the invading Russian forces in eastern Anatolia against their native state because of the Armenian volunteer units in the Russian Army.

When the Armistice of Mudros was signed in 1918, Yemen, together with Medina, was the only part of the Arabian peninsula that was still under Ottoman control. However, the Ottomans were eventually forced to cede Yemen and Medina following the armistice, along with parts of present-day Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan which were gained by the Ottoman forces during the final stages of the war, following the Russian Revolution of 1917. Under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire was solidified. The new countries created from the remnants of the Empire currently number 40 (including the disputed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus). Given the fact that the Turkish peasantry of Anatolia dropped to 40% of the pre-war levels, regardless of the method used in calculations, the Ottoman Empire's casualties during World War I were significant.[27]


Departure of Mehmed VI, last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1922The occupation of Constantinople along with the occupation of Smyrna mobilized the establishment of the Turkish national movement, which won the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.[28] The Sultanate was abolished on November 1, 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI Vahdettin (reigned 1918–1922), left the country on November 17, 1922. The new independent Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNA) was internationally recognized with the Treaty of Lausanne on July 24, 1923. The GNA officially declared the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The Caliphate was constitutionally abolished several months later, on March 3, 1924. The Sultan and his family were declared persona non grata of Turkey and exiled. Fifty years later, in 1974, the GNA granted descendants of the former Ottoman dynasty the right to acquire Turkish citizenship.

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